Hubble surveys galaxy clusters, looks for dark matter effects

Photo: Hubble Space Telescope image of galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847
Hubble Space Telescope image of galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847. Credit: NASA, ESA, M. Postman (STScI) and the CLASH Survey Team

October 13 — The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has been used to make an image of galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847. The apparently distorted shapes of distant galaxies in the background is caused by an invisible substance called dark matter, whose gravity bends and distorts their light rays. MACS 1206 has been observed as part of a new survey of galaxy clusters using Hubble.

Cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 (or MACS 1206 for short) is one of the first targets in a Hubble survey that will allow astronomers to construct the highly detailed dark matter maps of more galaxy clusters than ever before. These maps are being used to test previous but surprising results that suggest that dark matter is more densely packed inside clusters than some models predict. This might mean that galaxy cluster assembly began earlier than commonly thought.

The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) probes, with unparalleled precision, the distribution of dark matter in 25 massive clusters of galaxies. So far, the CLASH team has observed six of the 25 clusters.

Dark matter makes up the bulk of the Universe’s mass, yet it can only be detected by measuring how its gravity tugs on visible matter and warps the fabric of space-time like a fairground mirror so that the light from distant objects is distorted.

Galaxy clusters like MACS 1206 are perfect laboratories for studying dark matter’s gravitational effects because they are the most massive structures in the Universe to be held together by gravity. Because of their immense gravitational pull, the clusters act like giant cosmic lenses, amplifying, distorting and bending any light that passes through them — an effect known as gravitational lensing.

Lensing effects can also produce multiple images of the same distant object, as is evident in this Hubble picture. In particular, the apparent numbers and shapes of the distant galaxies far beyond a galaxy cluster become distorted as the light passes through, yielding a visible measurement of how much mass there is in the intervening cluster, and how it is distributed. The substantial lensing distortions seen are proof that the dominant mass component of the clusters is dark matter. The distortions would be far weaker if the clusters’ gravity came only from visible matter.

MACS 1206 lies four billion light-years from Earth. Hubble’s keen vision helped CLASH  astronomers to uncover 47 multiple images of 12 newly identified faraway galaxies. Finding  so many multiple images in a cluster is a unique capability of Hubble, and the CLASH survey  is optimised to find them. The new observations build on earlier work by Hubble and  ground-based telescopes.

Among the observations which complement Hubble’s is a major project using the  European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope. Unlike Hubble, which is making  images of the clusters, the VLT is carrying out spectroscopic observations, where  instruments split up the galaxies’ light into their component colours letting the scientists  draw inferences about many of the properties of the cluster galaxies, including their  distance and chemical makeup.

Taking advantage of two of Hubble’s powerful cameras, the Advanced Camera for Surveys  and the Wide Field Camera 3, the CLASH survey covers a broad wavelength range, from  ultraviolet to near-infrared.

Astronomers need the diverse colors to estimate the distances to the lensed galaxies  and to study them in more detail. Hubble’s unique capabilities allow astronomers to  estimate distances to galaxies that are four times fainter than those that ground-based  telescopes can see.

The era when the first clusters formed is not precisely known, but is estimated to be at  least nine billion years ago and possibly as far back as twelve billion years ago. If most of  the clusters in the CLASH survey are found to have excessively high accumulations of dark  matter in their central cores, then it may yield new clues about the early stages of the  origin of structure in the Universe.

A summer gem

by Bill Murmann

Image: Star chart showing constellation Cygnus.
Constellation Cygnus with Albireo circled at the Swan's head. Image via Stellarium by James Guilford.

During the summer, one of the best colorful double stars is Albireo, the head of the “Swan” in the constellation Cygnus. “Double Stars” was the topic for the program at our monthly meeting on Monday, September 12, and Albireo is a great example. Albireo is 380 light years away; the pair of stars is designated “Albireo A” and “Albireo B.”

Albireo A is yellow star, slightly cooler than our Sun. It has a surface temperature estimated at 7,000 degrees F., compared to the Sun’s 9,000-degree F. surface temperature.

Its companion, Albireo B, is a hot, blue star with an estimated surface temperature of about 23,000 degrees F. It also rotates very fast — at about 560,000 MPH.

When we are looking at Albireo, we are actually seeing three stars. Albireo A is, itself, a close binary star. Most of us, however, can’t split this pair with our telescopes. It takes a minimum 20-inch telescope under really good sky conditions to split Albireo A. Paul Leopold with his 20-inch scope is probably the only CAA member who has a chance to see all three stars in Albireo.

Findley State Park star party Saturday, September 3

CAA will host a star party on the beach at Findley State Park from 9 PM to midnight (or so) on Saturday, September 3, weather permitting. The Findley program was originally set for August 6. It had to be rescheduled due to bad weather. This is the last Saturday date with a favorable Moon available for the year because park nature programs close down after the Labor Day weekend.

Those who have experienced it say that this is a great dark-sky site. Park Naturalist Roger Nikiforow said we could expect between 100 and 200 people for the program. The concession stand will be kept open before and during our star party. Nikiforow will be giving a presentation about astronomy from 7-8 PM in the nature center, and will join us with his telescope around 8:30 PM.

Any club members who would like to join us for the star party are welcome to bring a scope and come on out, though all complimentary camping sites for volunteers have been taken.

Everyone’s invited!

Findley State Park, Wellington, Ohio

Oppy reaches Endeavour Crater

Photo: Edge of Endeavour Crater on planet Mars.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity arrived at the rim of Endeavour crater on Aug. 9, 2011, after a trek of more than 13 miles (21 kilometers) lasting nearly three years. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/ASU. (Click on image to see full-size.)

PASADENA, Calif. – After a journey of almost three years, NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has reached the Red Planet’s Endeavour Crater to study rocks never seen before.

On Aug. 9, the golf cart-sized rover relayed its arrival at a location named Spirit Point on the crater’s rim. Opportunity drove approximately 13 miles (21 kilometers) since climbing out of the Victoria Crater.

“NASA is continuing to write remarkable chapters in our nation’s story of exploration with discoveries on Mars and trips to an array of challenging new destinations,” NASA Administrator Charles Bolden said. “Opportunity’s findings and data from the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory will play a key role in making possible future human missions to Mars and other places where humans have not yet been.”

Endeavour Crater, which is more than 25 times wider than Victoria Crater, is 14 miles (22 kilometers) in diameter. At Endeavour, scientists expect to see much older rocks and terrains than those examined by Opportunity during its first seven years on Mars. Endeavour became a tantalizing destination after NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter detected clay minerals that may have formed in an early warmer and wetter period.

“We’re soon going to get the opportunity to sample a rock type the rovers haven’t seen yet,” said Matthew Golombek, Mars Exploration Rover science team member, at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. “Clay minerals form in wet conditions so we may learn about a potentially habitable environment that appears to have been very different from those responsible for the rocks comprising the plains.”

The name Spirit Point informally commemorates Opportunity’s twin rover, which stopped communicating in March 2010. Spirit’s mission officially concluded in May.